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There is limited research on the traditional Hispanic male and female gender roles of machismo and marianismo, respectively, in relation to negative cognitions and emotions. Given the vulnerability of Hispanics to negative cognitions and emotions, it is important to examine sociocultural correlates of emotional distress. Therefore, we examined associations of machismo and marianismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors i.

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Findings can inform mental health interventions and contribute to our understanding of the importance of gender role socialization in the context of self-reported negative cognitive-emotional factors in Hispanics. Similarly, clinical emotional disorders characterized by negative affect such as depression and anxiety have been associated with ificant disease burden and disability; major depressive disorders are the leading cause of disability in the United States U. Recent evidence shows that Hispanics—the largest U.

Research also suggests that socioeconomic and cultural factors may relate to psychological health. Additionally, there is evidence suggesting that acculturation is related to increased negative affect experiences in Hispanics, with U. Despite the apparent vulnerability of U. Hispanics to negative cognitive-emotional factors and emotional disorders, sociocultural correlates of emotional distress e.

Therefore, it is of particular interest to examine sociocultural constructions of gender roles as they may elucidate better understanding of the cognitive-emotional experiences of Hispanics. Gender is an important factor influencing health and well-being Courtenay, Several studies in psychiatric epidemiology have shown that women experience nearly twice the rate of depression as men National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH]; Wassertheil-Smoller, However, explanations for these gender differences in depression are unclear.

Yet, there is minimal research on the association of gender role socialization with negative cognitions and emotions, particularly among Hispanics. Thus, a key unanswered question is whether components of gender roles are associated with increased negative cognitive-emotional factors. Given the need to better understand the emotional health needs of Hispanics, research is warranted to examine cultural constructions of gender roles as correlates of negative cognitive-emotional factors among Hispanics from diverse background groups.

The sociocultural scripts of male and female gender role socialization in Hispanics cultures are referred to respectively as machismo and marianismo.

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The construct of machismo describes beliefs and expectations regarding the role of men in society; it is a set of values, attitudes, and beliefs about masculinity, or what it is to be a man. Machismo also includes attitudinal beliefs that consider it appropriate for women to remain in traditional roles, and thus encourages male dominance over women.

It is important to note that a small but growing body of literature e. Research also suggests that machismo may be influenced by socio-demographic factors, such as acculturation; that is, the endorsement of machismo is higher among individuals with lower U. Nonetheless, the majority of the existing literature on male gender roles has been obtained from college student and non-Hispanic White samples, and has not always considered cultural aspects of gender roles.

Therefore, the association between the construct of machismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors in the larger Hispanic population, including women, remains unclear. The counterpart to machismo is marianismowhich is a set of values and expectations concerning female gender roles. A marianista orientation depicts women in nurturing roles and prescribes respect for patriarchal values. Despite these findings, there is limited research examining the construct of marianismo and most studies to date have focused on the relationship of adherence to traditional gender roles with sexual practices and abuse e.

Past research has failed to examine marianismo in relation to multiple cognitive-emotional factors beyond depression, and it remains unclear how the multidimensional construct of marianismo contributes to negative cognitions and emotions in Hispanics. In summation, machismo and marianismo are intertwined, co-existing constructs that describe socially acceptable norms and beliefs that support men and women in traditional gender roles emphasizing a patriarchal power structure.

The endorsement of machismo ideology is not exclusive to men as women are often socialized to show respect for male authority and are expected to internalize and normalize patriarchal values.

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Likewise, marianismo is relevant to both genders as men are expected to be dominant and to engage in protective paternalism, which reinforces the marianista belief that women should be submissive nurturing figures in need of male protection. Although the gender roles of machismo and marianismo have been documented in research, there is a paucity of information concerning their association with emotional health indicators. Thus, given the possible relationship of gender roles with emotional health, the present study examined associations of the constructs of machismo and marianismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors i.

We hypothesized that endorsement of more traditional machismo and marianismo beliefs would relate to higher levels of negative cognitions and emotions, and that these associations would remain after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics i. We also examined if the relationships between gender roles i. Moderation analyses were conducted as an exploratory aim and thus, no a-priori directional hypotheses were derived. Census block groups were randomly selected in the defined field site areas with stratification based on Hispanic concentration and socio-economic status.

Households were randomly selected in each sampled census block group. Eligible participants i. Participants completed a 1—2 hour interview-administered sociocultural assessment battery. For both studies, Institutional Review Board approval was obtained at each participating site and all participants provided written informed consent.

The current study used a shortened item version of STAI. Responses are measured on a 4-point scale from 1 almost never to 4 almost always. The Spielberger Trait Anger Scale Spielberger, is a reliable item measure of anger proneness on a 4-point scale from 1 almost never to 4 almost always that has demonstrated good psychometric properties.

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It consists of two subscales: angry temperament i. Two items from the overall trait anger scale are not included in the subscales. Overall scale and subscales scores ranged from 10 to 40 and 4 to 16, respectively; higher scale and subscale scores indicate more anger. The item cynicism scale has exhibited good internal consistency in research and it asks respondents to rate their agreement true or false with general statements of interpersonal hostility that view others as deceitful and selfish.

To assess the endorsement of machismo beliefseight items measured on a 4-point scale from 1 strongly disagree to 4 strongly agree were administered to all participants. This scale consists of two subscales: traditional machismo characterized by hypermasculinity, dominance, sexism, and emotional restrictiveness; 5-items and caballerismo characterized by bravery, honor, and chivalry; 3-items.

It asks respondents to rate the extent to which they agree with statements regarding the female gender role values and practices ascribed to the multidimensional construct of marianismo on a 4-point scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 4 strongly agree ; this scale was administered to all participants. Higher scores on each subscale indicate greater endorsement of marianismo beliefs. In the present study, 10 items assessing language use i.

For items assessing language use, responses range from 1 Only Spanish to 5 Only English. For items assessing ethnic social relationsresponses range from 1 All Hispanics to 5 All Americans. The SASH respectively yields two average subscale scores ranging from 1 to 5, with higher scores indicating greater acculturation.

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Based on studies examining similar hypotheses among Hispanics e. All were weighted relative to the census to adjust for sampling probability and non-response Lavange et al. Descriptive statistics i. For all major study measures, analyses of internal consistency and confirmatory factor analyses CFA were conducted to evaluate the measurement properties among the entire sample and by language group i. Analyses of internal consistency revealed adequate reliability across most scales see Table 1 and multigroup CFAs supported configural i.

Bivariate analyses were then conducted to examine Pearson correlations among primary study variables, specifically correlations between gender roles i. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine whether gender roles i. Another set of multilevel regression models included interaction terms to examine the socio-demographic variables of Hispanic background, acculturation, and participant sex as potential moderators where a main effect was seen for a particular relationship between gender roles and negative cognitive-emotional factors.

For these models, acculturation, and gender role predictors were centered at the sample mean to increase interpretability of regression estimates and reduce collinearity of predictors. No adjustments were made for multiple statistical tests performed. The estimated mean age of the target population was As seen in Table 2approximately half of the target population was married or cohabitating Within the target population, See Table 2 for sample characteristics overall and according to Hispanic background group. Values except for sample sizes are weighted for sample de and nonresponse to Census U.

For all scales, higher scores indicate greater endorsement of the construct assessed. Pearson correlations among main study variables are presented in Table 3. As seen in Table 3there were several ificant correlations between the marianismo subscales and negative cognitive-emotional factors. In addition, Table 4 shows the correlations between traditional gender role beliefs and negative cognitive-emotional factors by sex. No other ificant associations of the machismo scale with the negative cognitive-emotional factors were identified.

Control variables included age, marital status, income, education, employment status, gender, language use acculturation, social ethnic relations acculturation, field site, and Hispanic background group. Model 2 adjusted for Model 1 control variables plus machismo gender roles subscales.

All subscales were entered simultaneously. Model 2 adjusted for Model 1 control variables plus marianismo gender roles subscales. A series of models evaluated if the ificant relationships between gender roles and negative cognitive-emotional factors remained consistent across participant sex, Hispanic background and acculturation.

Thus, all interaction terms were dropped from the final multilevel models regressing negative cognitive-emotional factors on gender roles.

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